- Ph.D. African History: University of Wisconsin, Madison (1976)
- M.A. Cmparative Tropical History: University of Wisconsin, Madison (1969)
- Certificate in African Studies: University of Wisconsin, Madison (1969)
- B.A. History and Social Studies Teacher Preparation: Augsburg College (1963)
For much of my career, I have been engaged in recovering, analyzing and writing about Kenyan responses to British colonial rule. Of particular interest to me have been the connections among three related areas: African protest, mission Christianity and literacy. Over the years, I have pursued these topics in three, year-long periods of fieldwork in Kenya. A book and several articles discuss the outcomes of this research.
More recently, I have become interested in the formation of Kenyan elites during the independence era. Using my former Kenyan high school students whom I taught 1963-67 and interviewed in the 1990s, I have gained insights into their careers, families and economic wellbeing. I explore the results of this research in a book to be published in the spring, 2012.